Mastering Machine Learning
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Mastering Machine Learning: An Overview Of Fundamental Concepts

February 19, 2024

AI engineering is one of the most lucrative careers today. An article by Nasdaq highlights a 20-fold increase in the demand for skilled AI engineers in the coming decade. As more AI solutions hit the market and go mainstream, the surge in the demand for engineers with strong skills in machine and deep learning system design is expected to persist through the years across nearly every major economic sector.  

If you, too, are aspiring for a career in AI, you need a well-defined and expansive skillset in machine learning. Mastery of machine learning isn’t easy, however. A solid foundation in applied & advanced mathematics is a pre-requisite. Alongside crack math skills, there are several interdisciplinary concepts & topics to master as well.

In this blog, professional ML experts from, a leading global academic service provider specializing in homework assistance, list the fundamental concepts in machine learning that students should master.

Core Concepts In Machine Learning

Can machines learn? Is the process similar to how humans learn? Some of humanity’s most brilliant minds have pondered these questions. Their findings and revelations have paved the way for artificial intelligence systems that are capable of learning through experience.

The formal definition of machine learning, according to Tom M. Mitchell, Professor of the Machine Learning Department at Carnegie Mellon University, goes something like this à 

A computer program is said to be able to learn from experience E, in light of a specific class of tasks T and measure of performance P if performance P at tasks T improves with experience E.

Data plays a key role in machine learning processes since any & all experiences E that a computerized ML system encounters are actually data in different formats generated from varying sources & by other processes.  

The Basic Idea

The rudimentary objective of any machine learning system is to make predictions using data. In fact, all kinds of machine learning tasks and approaches can be defined or represented in such a way.

The more variety of data the system processes, the better its predictive abilities.

Data Dimensionality

Dimensionality is an important aspect of data processing and manipulation. Machine learning problems and the associated dataset, as well as the data used to train ML systems – all data come with certain intrinsic dimensionalities. Most machine learning problem datasets possess different kinds of features and attributes that can be mathematically translated into the dimensionalities associated with the data. The target data or predicted output, too, has its dimensionalities.

Major machine learning systems such as the ones powering ChatGPT and YouTube & Netflix’s recommendation systems generally deal with vast volumes of multi-dimensional data.

Linear algebra offers the mechanisms for manipulating large-scale and high-dimensional data- vectors, matrices, and tensors provide the frameworks for representation & manipulation.

Representations, Dependencies, & Processing

Given their high demand, ML engineers generally need to design systems that work with data of diverse kinds. Systems encounter discrete & continuous data, ordinal & nominal data, real-time data, structural & temporal data, and the like. For example, machine learning-powered chatbots deal with both a continuous stream of real-time data.

  • Real-world data is generally complex and multi-dimensional, with loads of interdependencies. There may be linear or nonlinear dependencies. Certain variables and/or features may be observable or latent. In many cases, some data might be missing, making it necessary to construct some prior assumptions.
  • Mathematical constructs such as vectors, matrices, tensors, graphs, etc., are some of the most commonly used mechanisms for representing data. Mathematical operations enable near-accurate representations of almost every kind of data, such as text, image, video, and audio.
  • Vectors can represent a singular collection of features pertaining to a specific entity. Categorical variables can also be represented using vectors. Matrices and tensors are ideal for representing multi-dimensional data such as images, vast documents, videos, multi-spectral data from satellite sensors, etc.

Data and machine learning algorithms can be represented using mathematical frameworks and structures. For example, ML mechanisms such as decision trees and neural networks are based on a multitude of mathematical concepts and, thus, can be represented mathematically.

Feature Selection

If some data presents exhaustive information about some entity, process, or event, then it should encode all major & minor features & characteristics of the subject it represents. However, not all features are useful in every scenario. Feature selection is a critical stage in certain machine learning processes that act as the fundamental building blocks of any data set.

Alongside the quality and quantity of data, feature selection is key to developing highly accurate predictive systems. Different kinds of machine learning tasks and systems require different kinds of feature selections. Feature selection and extraction are vital when there’s a vast volume of high-dimensional data to deal with.

Know that a greater number of features DOES NOT equate to higher accuracy in predictions. Pertinent feature selection requires prior knowledge about the nature & characteristics of a dataset. ML systems can be afflicted with the curse of dimensionality, which states the more feature-rich a dataset, the higher the volume and dimensionality of the feature space, and the more inefficient the machine learning process.

Well, that’s all the space we have for this article. Hope this was an interesting and informative read for anyone looking to master machine learning.  

Check these links for more information on the core concepts, mathematical foundations, and commonly employed ML algorithms. And if you need urgent help from top-tier experts, then connect with today.

All the best!

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